ScienceShot: Female Bats Dictate the Spread of White-Nose Syndrome

Posted On Dec 3 2019 by

first_imgWhite-nose syndrome, a fungus that has decimated bat populations across eastern North America, may be spread primarily by female bats. That’s the conclusion of a new study from Pennsylvania, which tracked the genetics of little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus, pictured above), a species hit particularly hard by the disease. The plague began sweeping through eastern Pennsylvania in January 2009, but western corners of the state remained disease-free for another 2 years. It has spread hundreds of kilometers from this pocket in the northeast Appalachian Mountains, while some parts of nearby western Pennsylvania remain untouched even today. The scientists examined eastern hibernating colonies positive for white-nose syndrome in 2009 and western habitats that were negative through 2011 to 2012, according to a report published in the May-June issue of the Journal of Heredity. By comparing mitochondrial genes, which are maternally inherited, versus nuclear genes passed by both parents, the team could assess how both sexes traveled through Pennsylvania. Traits in the nuclear DNA did not significantly vary, suggesting males freely move and mate across the state. Maternal traits, in contrast, segregated between eastern and western sites. The researchers were surprised that female movements also paralleled the intensity of how white-nose syndrome coursed through the state. Studies show that female little brown bats tend toward philopatry—sticking around their place of birth. But if they do leave home, the results suggest that they follow geographical landmarks, such as the Ridge-and-Valley Appalachians. Maternal traits flowed along the state’s eastern mountains into an additional colony in West Virginia, but receded at the Appalachian Plateau in western Pennsylvania. The results don’t peg female bats as the primary carriers of white-nose syndrome, but simply suggest they influence the timing and pattern of spread, given the disease map matched that of maternal traits. If this gender bias holds as the disease creeps into the Midwest, conservation officials may want to focus treatment strategies on female bats, the researchers say.See more ScienceShots.Sign up for our daily newsletterGet more great content like this delivered right to you!Country *AfghanistanAland IslandsAlbaniaAlgeriaAndorraAngolaAnguillaAntarcticaAntigua and BarbudaArgentinaArmeniaArubaAustraliaAustriaAzerbaijanBahamasBahrainBangladeshBarbadosBelarusBelgiumBelizeBeninBermudaBhutanBolivia, Plurinational State ofBonaire, Sint Eustatius and SabaBosnia and HerzegovinaBotswanaBouvet IslandBrazilBritish Indian Ocean TerritoryBrunei DarussalamBulgariaBurkina FasoBurundiCambodiaCameroonCanadaCape VerdeCayman IslandsCentral African RepublicChadChileChinaChristmas IslandCocos (Keeling) IslandsColombiaComorosCongoCongo, The Democratic Republic of theCook IslandsCosta RicaCote D’IvoireCroatiaCubaCuraçaoCyprusCzech RepublicDenmarkDjiboutiDominicaDominican RepublicEcuadorEgyptEl SalvadorEquatorial GuineaEritreaEstoniaEthiopiaFalkland Islands (Malvinas)Faroe IslandsFijiFinlandFranceFrench GuianaFrench PolynesiaFrench Southern TerritoriesGabonGambiaGeorgiaGermanyGhanaGibraltarGreeceGreenlandGrenadaGuadeloupeGuatemalaGuernseyGuineaGuinea-BissauGuyanaHaitiHeard Island and Mcdonald IslandsHoly See (Vatican City State)HondurasHong KongHungaryIcelandIndiaIndonesiaIran, Islamic Republic ofIraqIrelandIsle of ManIsraelItalyJamaicaJapanJerseyJordanKazakhstanKenyaKiribatiKorea, Democratic People’s Republic ofKorea, Republic ofKuwaitKyrgyzstanLao People’s Democratic RepublicLatviaLebanonLesothoLiberiaLibyan Arab JamahiriyaLiechtensteinLithuaniaLuxembourgMacaoMacedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic ofMadagascarMalawiMalaysiaMaldivesMaliMaltaMartiniqueMauritaniaMauritiusMayotteMexicoMoldova, Republic ofMonacoMongoliaMontenegroMontserratMoroccoMozambiqueMyanmarNamibiaNauruNepalNetherlandsNew CaledoniaNew ZealandNicaraguaNigerNigeriaNiueNorfolk IslandNorwayOmanPakistanPalestinianPanamaPapua New GuineaParaguayPeruPhilippinesPitcairnPolandPortugalQatarReunionRomaniaRussian FederationRWANDASaint Barthélemy Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da CunhaSaint Kitts and NevisSaint LuciaSaint Martin (French part)Saint Pierre and MiquelonSaint Vincent and the GrenadinesSamoaSan MarinoSao Tome and PrincipeSaudi ArabiaSenegalSerbiaSeychellesSierra LeoneSingaporeSint Maarten (Dutch part)SlovakiaSloveniaSolomon IslandsSomaliaSouth AfricaSouth Georgia and the South Sandwich IslandsSouth SudanSpainSri LankaSudanSurinameSvalbard and Jan MayenSwazilandSwedenSwitzerlandSyrian Arab RepublicTaiwanTajikistanTanzania, United Republic ofThailandTimor-LesteTogoTokelauTongaTrinidad and TobagoTunisiaTurkeyTurkmenistanTurks and Caicos IslandsTuvaluUgandaUkraineUnited Arab EmiratesUnited KingdomUnited StatesUruguayUzbekistanVanuatuVenezuela, Bolivarian Republic ofVietnamVirgin Islands, BritishWallis and FutunaWestern SaharaYemenZambiaZimbabweI also wish to receive emails from AAAS/Science and Science advertisers, including information on products, services and special offers which may include but are not limited to news, careers information & upcoming events.Required fields are included by an asterisk(*)last_img read more


Arizona Cardinals wide receiver Larry Fitzgerald

Posted On Aug 11 2019 by

first_imgArizona Cardinals wide receiver Larry Fitzgerald (11) pumps his fist as he runs off the field after an NFL football game against the Chicago Bears, Sunday, Sept. 20, 2015, in Chicago. The Cardinals won 48-23. (AP Photo/Michael Conroy) Top Stories 0 Comments   Share   Former Cardinals kicker Phil Dawson retires It’s clear that while blocking may not have been a priority for Fitzgerald — and still, he gets paid as much as he does to catch the ball — it is now a big part of his game that will continue to help the Cardinals win. While Chris Johnson, David Johnson and Andre Ellington get the credit for running with the ball and the offensive line is praised for opening holes, the work of Fitzgerald and his fellow wideouts may not be easy to see, but it is not unnecessary.Or unnoticed.“As a football player either you’ve got it or you don’t have it,” Goodwin said. “You have to be a tough guy, first of all. There are a lot of guys that play in this league that are not tough — they’re just athletic and they can make plays.“But when it comes down to it, the dirty part of the game, be it blocking in the trenches or blocking on the perimeter, it’s got to be a will, it’s got to be an attitude, it’s got to be a want-to, and Larry has that.” – / 44 “His heart. You block with your heart,” Arians said of what makes Fitzgerald a good blocker. “You see a lot of wide receivers go, ‘I could’ve got him.’ No, you could’ve got him and you just didn’t. He gets it.”Fitzgerald, though, admits that hasn’t always been the case.“It wasn’t something that was really high on my priority list when I was younger, but here for us to be able to have great team success it requires the wide receivers to do some blocking,” Fitzgerald said. “And so for us to be able to have the success I know that we’re capable of, guys have to do some things that maybe they weren’t good at before.“But I’ve worked at it, we practice on it every single day. I’m much more comfortable doing it and I just hope to continue to improve at it.”His ability to be an extra blocker, especially when lined up in the slot as often as he is, is a central reason for the team’s improvement in the run game. Offensive coordinator said Fitzgerald reminds him of former Pittsburgh Steelers receiver Hines Ward, who was also a physical blocker. He said the receiver is always talking to him about how he can improve as a blocker, and that mentality trickles down to the rest of the receiver group. The 5: Takeaways from the Coyotes’ introduction of Alex Meruelo TEMPE, Ariz. — Around the country, Arizona Cardinals receiver Larry Fitzgerald is earning rave reviews for his resurgence as a weapon in the passing game.Through two games, the 32-year-old is tied for 10th in the league with 14 receptions, is fifth with 199 receiving yards and is tied for second with three receiving touchdowns. His fantasy football owners are very pleased with the early returns.But inside the organization, while everyone is undoubtedly excited about the box scores the veteran is producing, it is something that does not show up in the stat book that has everyone talking. Specifically, Fitzgerald’s blocking in the run game.Asked what has changed in that department this season, as the Cardinals are averaging 4.4 yards per carry through two games this year after gaining just 3.3 yards per tote last season, head coach Bruce Arians pointed to the tight ends, offensive line and receivers blocking, singling out Fitzgerald as someone who has excelled.Quarterback Carson Palmer, who has made a living throwing to players like Fitzgerald, has noticed the receiver’s ability there, too.“I think he is the best in the game,” Palmer said. “I would take him over a lot of tight ends in the blocking game and it’s nothing but will and want-to. There are a lot of guys that don’t want to and a lot of guys that look like they can. He obviously looks like he can and does it. There are not a lot of guys that do that at his position.”At 6-foot-3 and 218 pounds, Fitzgerald no doubt has enough size to at least get in the way of defenders, if not beat them outright. But just being big does not make a player a good blocker, especially when said player is a eight-time Pro Bowler who is going to enter the Hall of Fame because of his ability to stretch the field and make big-time catches. Derrick Hall satisfied with D-backs’ buying and selling Grace expects Greinke trade to have emotional impactlast_img read more